This product is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that functions to activate the GLP-1 receptor and increases insulin secretion, decrease glucagon secretion, and slow gastric emptying to improve glycemic control.
>99% by SDS-Page and HPLC analysis
<0.001 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method
Indicated as adjunctive therapy to improve glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus who are taking metformin, a sulfonylurea, or a combination of both, but have not achieved adequate glycemic control.
Examples of Clinical Use:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
The product is an incretin mimetic, which has glucoregulatory effects. While it is has blood-sugar lowering actions alone, it can also be combined with other medications such as pioglitazone, metformin, sulfonylureas, and/or insulin to improve glucose control. The approved use of the product is with either sulfonylureas, metformin and thiazolinediones. The medication is injected twice per day using a pre-filled pen device. Typical human responses to the product plus eating include improvements in the initial rapid release of endogenous insulin, suppression of glucagon release by the pancreas, regulation of gastric empyting and reduced appetite; all behaviors more typical of individuals without blood sugar control problems. The product is self-regulating in that in lowers blood sugar when levels are elevated but does not continue to lower blood sugar when levels return to normal, unlike with sulfonylureas or insulins.
Mechanism of action:
Exenatide is a functional analog of the human incretin Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1). Incretins enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and exhibit other antihyperglycemic actions following their release into the circulation from the gut. The GLP-1 system increases insulin secretion only in the presence of elevated plasma glucose levels, avoiding inappropriately high insulin levels during fasting. The drug also moderates peak serum glucagon levels during hyperglycemic periods following meals, but does not interfere with glucagon release in response to hypoglycemia. Secondary effects of drug administration reduces the rate of gastric emptying and decreases food intake, mitigating the potential severity of hyperglycemic events after meals.
Humans and other mammals
Target 1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor; Enzyme 1. Serum albumin
Exenatide is a perplexing and ground-breaking hormone with a wide range of medical applications, and as such, has been at the focal point of various scientific studies aimed at evaluating its implications for human health.
Background information on Exenatide
Initially discovered in the 1990s in the venomous saliva of the Gila monster lizard (Heloderma suspectum), Exenatide is composed of 39 amino acids and mimics the beneficial effects of human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists. The gene locus for Exenatide is found on chromosome 6q24, where two genes (KCNA1 and TRIM42) are located. This location is of particular scientific interest because of the potential interactions between Exenatide and these two genes.
The protein structure of Exenatide is also intriguing. It consists of a single chain of 39 amino acids, and is characterized by an alpha helix and a singular beta-turn. This unique structure helps Exenatide bind efficiently to cells, which in turn aids in the regulation of glucose metabolism.
Exenatide plays a substantial role in the regulation of blood sugar levels. The hormone works by mimicking the natural incretin hormone GLP-1 that alters pancreatic functions. When Exenatide is present, it stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin, thereby lowering blood sugar levels. Moreover, Exenatide reduces the speed at which the stomach empties its contents, which results in a reduced feeling of hunger and, therefore, lower food intake. This makes Exenatide a formidable potential therapy option for patients with type 2 diabetes and those who struggle with obesity.
Exenatide-related signaling pathways
Exenatide impacts several signaling pathways within the human body. One of these is the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway, which is activated when Exenatide binds to its receptor. This activation leads to the production of insulin within the body. Another pathway is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, which is involved in cell survival and growth. There is also evidence to suggest that Exenatide plays a role in adaptor protein (APPL1)-mediated signaling, which is linked to insulin sensitivity.
Exenatide related diseases and the role of Exenatide in diseases
A growing body of research has demonstrated that Exenatide has multiple potential applications in disease treatment. Most notably, Exenatide has been used to treat type 2 diabetes, due to its ability to increase insulin secretion and slow gastric emptying. Research also suggests that Exenatide could potentially be used to treat a wide range of other conditions, including obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.
The application of Exenatide in medicine
Currently, the primary application of Exenatide in medicine is as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. It is often used in conjunction with other medications to improve blood sugar control. The reduced feeling of hunger and slower stomach emptying induced by Exenatide may also eventually lead to weight loss, which can be crucial for many diabetes patients. Furthermore, researchers are studying the potential application of Exenatide for PCOS and neurodegenerative diseases.
List of drug candidates related to Exenatide
Several drug candidates related to Exenatide have been identified and studied extensively for use in treating various diseases. One of these is Lixisenatide, a once-daily GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Another drug candidate, Dulaglutide, has also shown promise for controlling blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, Semaglutide has been explored for its weight-loss potential in overweight and obese patients.
In conclusion, Exenatide presents a fascinating perspective on how compounds found in nature can provide tremendous opportunities for medical advancement. Researchers are tirelessly providing a new understanding of how Exenatide operates and how it can be utilized to treat a variety of health challenges. While primarily used in the fight against type 2 diabetes, its potential reaches way beyond just this one disease. The advances in science, coupled with the continued exploration into this significant hormone, could potentially pave the way for new treatments for a plethora of health conditions.
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without prior written approval from Creative BioMart.
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