<0.001 EU per 1 μg of the peptide by the LAL method
For treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, also for condyloma acuminatum
Examples of Clinical Use:
Relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, also for condyloma acuminatum
The product upregulates the expression of MHC I proteins, allowing for increased presentation of peptides derived from viral antigens. This enhances the activation of CD8+ T cells that are the precursors for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and makes the macrophage a better target for CTL-mediated killing. Type I interferons also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase), beta-2 microglobulin and neopterin.
Mechanism of action:
Interferon beta binds to type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c) which, upon dimerization, activate two Jak (Janus kinase) tyrosine kinases (Jak1 and Tyk2). These transphosphorylate themselves and phosphorylate the receptors. The phosphorylated INFAR receptors then bind to Stat1 and Stat2 (signal transducers and activators of transcription) which dimerize and activate multiple (~100) immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Interferon beta binds more stably to type I interferon receptors than interferon alpha.
First discovered in the 1950s in clinical laboratories, interferons have provided a crucial insight into the machinery of the human immune system. Interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a) is one of the subtypes of interferon that has emerged as potent antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory agents. The gene encoding IFNβ-1a is located on the short arm of chromosome 9.
Structurally, IFNβ-1a is a glycosylated polypeptide with a complex 3D structure. It consists of five alpha helices (A-E) and loops connecting them. Unlike many proteins, IFNβ-1a does not have a regular secondary structure, such as beta sheets or alpha helices, making its structure unique.
Function of IFNβ-1a
The main function of IFNβ-1a is to stimulate the body's immune response against viral infections and potentially control the proliferation of malignant cells. IFNβ-1a achieves this by binding to specific receptors (IFNAR) on the cell surface which triggers a cascade of intracellular events leading to the expression of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs have antiviral and anti-proliferative properties, aiding in immune system response against threats.
Signaling Pathways related to IFNβ-1a
IFNβ-1a primarily interacts with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway to coordinate an immune response. The binding of IFNβ-1a to its receptor activates the receptor-associated Janus kinase (JAK). This in turn phosphorylates and activates Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) proteins, which move to the nucleus and promote expression of ISGs.
Related Diseases of IFNβ-1a
IFNβ-1a has a remarkable impact on a range of diseases, particularly those related to the immune system, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) – a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system. IFNβ-1a reduces the frequency and severity of MS attacks by controlling inflammation and moderating the immune response.
The protein also has significant antiviral properties and shows potential therapeutic effects in diseases caused by viral infections. Research suggests that IFNβ-1a can also inhibit the proliferation of certain cancers, indicating its potential role in cancer therapy.
Medicinal Application of IFNβ-1a
In medicine, recombinant IFNβ-1a is widely utilized in the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. It has been approved by the FDA for this purpose under trade names such as "Avonex" and "Rebif".
Drug Candidates Related to IFNβ-1a
Paradigms for IFNβ-1a therapies have been keenly investigated with several drug candidates emerging. These include PEGylated forms of IFNβ-1a, such as "Plegridy", which extends the half-life of the drug, allowing for less frequent dosing. Other IFNβ-1a related drug candidates focus on improving the delivery of the drug, such as nanoparticle-based systems for targeted and sustained release.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use. No products from Creative BioMart may be resold, modified for resale or used to manufacture commercial products
without prior written approval from Creative BioMart.
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