The Betacellulin protein is encoded by the BTC gene on chromosome 4 at locus 4q13-q21 in humans. It is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) protein family. It promotes the secretion of insulin and pancreatic cell proliferation, plus retinal vascular permeability. There is a possible association between type 2 diabetes and mutations of the gene. Another disease associated with BTC is squamous cell carcinoma. BTC was first found in mice but was subsequently discovered in humans too. Betacellulin is used in stem cell research because it induces neural stem cell proliferation. It is a mitogen for retinal pigment epithelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Betacellulin has been tested as part of gene therapy with neurogenin 3 to measure its effect on metabolic problems in diabetic mice and could help to reverse major issues. It could help to reduce gluten intolerance. Plus, it has been shown to promote retinal vascular permeability, which is also useful for diabetes treatment as type 2 diabetes can cause vision loss due to diabetic maculopathy. Mouse models have shown that BTC can result in accentuated retinal vascular permeability in mice with diabetes. There have also been studies showing that BTC regulates hair follicle development and regulates epidermal homeostasis too.
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS. *1 mg pack size (01M) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Rubin, J.S. et al. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:415. The ED50 for this effect is 0.15-0.6 ng/mL.
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Betacellulin could help to reduce gluten intolerance. Plus, it has been shown to promote retinal vascular permeability, which is also useful for diabetes treatment as type 2 diabetes can cause vision loss due to diabetic maculopathy.
Examples of Clinical Use:
Reducing gluten intolerance and promoting retinal vascular permeability.
Betacellulin (BTC) is a growth factor belonging to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and is a protein secreted by tumor cells on mammalian structures. The cDNA was first discovered and isolated in mouse insulin-like cells. The production and downregulation of BTC protein interact with many cell growth factor receptors. In mammalian tissues, BTC can bind to ErbB family receptors, activate receptors, and participate in various cellular signaling pathways. The standardization research of BTC began in the early 1980s, and in recent years, BTC has become one of the widely studied growth factors.
The Function of Betacellulin
BTC is a cytokine that is a highly structurally similar TGF- α, part of EGF and HB-EGF. Its main function is to promote cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as other important biological processes. BTC can regulate cell migration and survival during cell growth. BTC promotes the proliferation and transformation of tumor cells and stromal cells by activating ErbB family receptors.
At the same time, BTC can affect cell function through interactions with neighboring cells. BTC plays a very important role in pancreatic islet cells, as it can promote pancreatic islets β Cell growth and proliferation. Experimental studies have shown that BTC can promote pancreatic islets by promoting cells in the stationary phase of the cell cycle to enter the S phase β Cell proliferation. Meanwhile, BTC can also promote insulin secretion. During ovarian development, BTC is involved in ovarian maturation and ovulation. BTC can also promote breast cell proliferation and differentiation, and is an important factor in breast cell proliferation. Currently, some studies have shown that BTC also has a certain impact on neural development and regeneration.
Betacellulin related signaling pathway
BTC, as a growth factor, can affect cell proliferation, survival, and migration through multiple signaling pathways. BTC can activate ErbB receptors, including EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB4. Its binding can cause ErbB receptor dimerization and kinase activation, thereby initiating downstream signaling pathways such as RAS/MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and JAK/STAT to promote cell proliferation and survival. In addition, BTC can also serve as a self-adhesive molecule and play a role in cell-cell interactions.
Betacellulin related diseases
The abnormal expression and activation of BTC has been proved to be related to malignant tumors, diabetes and other diseases. In tumors, BTC can serve as a factor that promotes tumor cell proliferation and transformation. Some studies have shown that overexpression of BTC can increase the incidence rate of a variety of cancers. In addition to cancer, BTC is also related to the pathogenesis of nervous system disease such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.
Potential applications of BTC in medicine
Due to its extensive ability to participate in various cellular signaling pathways, the BTC has received significant attention in various aspects of medical research. The application prospects of BTC mainly include the following aspects:
Cancer treatment: BTC has been proven to be a factor in cancer cell differentiation and transformation, and is therefore considered a potential cancer treatment target.
Neuropharmacology: It is committed to treating various nervous system disease through BTC. Some studies have focused on the therapeutic effects of BTC on chronic neuropathy, neurodegenerative diseases, and neuromuscular diseases.
Applied in tissue repair and regeneration research: BTC has been proven to promote the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells, enabling them to become potential phenotypic cells for specific tissues and organs.
List of Betacellulin related drugs under research
Afatinib: This is an oral anticancer drug that belongs to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor category. It can inhibit the activation of EGFR and ErbB2, reduce the production of endothelial growth factors, and inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, while also inhibiting the activation of the BTC signaling pathway.
MEHD7945A: This is a BTC specific receptor agonist that can resist EGFR translocation mutations and inhibit proliferation in colon cancer cells expressing BTC.
SC1204: This is a chemical substance used as a BTC receptor antagonist to selectively inhibit BTC and related growth factor signaling pathways. This chemical can restore the papillary structure of breast cancer cells.
AG1478: AG1478 is an EGFR inhibitor that inhibits the expression of BTC, thereby reducing pancreatic islets β The ability of cell proliferation and insulin secretion has been used in the research of diabetes and cancer treatment.
Herceptin: Herceptin is an antibody drug used to treat HER2 positive breast cancer. It can block the biological activity of BTC, reduce the proliferation, metastasis and invasion of cancer cells, and improve the therapeutic effect.
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