Vatreptacog alfa is a genetically engineered variant of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) containing three amino acid changes. It has been used in trials studying the treatment of Haemophilia B, Haemophilia A, Congenital Bleeding Disorder, Haemophilia A With Inhibitors, and Haemophilia B With Inhibitors.
The management of bleeds in hemophilia patients with inhibitors is limited to two bypassing agents, recombinant human activated factor VII (rFVIIa); (Novo Seven, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark) and plasma derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd–aPCC; FEIBA VH, Baxter AG, Vienna, Austria). Although both agents have well-established efficacy and safety profiles, several approaches have been explored to develop novel rFVIIa products with improved therapeutic properties. These include chemical or molecular modifications to rFVIIa to increase the platelet surface-dependent activity and/or enhance the rFVIIa half-life, and the application of FVIIa via alternative routes. Molecular alterations of therapeutic proteins, like FVIIa, however, carry the risk of creating neo-epitopes for T cells or B cells, or structural alterations that stimulate innate immune responses. Consequently, such alterations could trigger the development of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), with or without neutralizing activity, altered pharmacokinetics (PK), hypersensitivity reactions or breakdown of immune tolerance to the endogenous protein. Vatreptacog alfa, an activated recombinant human FVII analog, is a biopharmaceutical agent that plays a critical role in hemostasis, or the process of blood clotting. Vatreptacog alfa was developed to provide a more effective treatment option for bleeding episodes in hemophilia patients with inhibitors. Its primary sequence is identical to native FVIIa and rFVIIa, with the exception of three amino acid substitutions (V158D, E296V and M298Q) in the protease domain. As a result of these substitutions, vatreptacog alfa has enhanced tissue factor (TF)-independent enzymatic activity on activated platelets compared with native FVIIa. This review aims to provide an overview of the structure and functions of Vatreptacog alfa, highlighting its significance in treating bleeding disorders and related conditions.
2. The structure of Vatreptacog alfa
Vatreptacog alfa is a synthetic form of activated factor VII (FVIIa), a coagulation factor that is essential for initiating the clotting cascade. It is produced using recombinant DNA technology, involving the expression of the human FVII gene in suitable host cells. The resulting protein is structurally similar to the endogenous FVIIa found in the body. At the molecular level, Vatreptacog alfa consists of a single polypeptide chain that contains a γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains, a β-hydroxyasparagine (Hya) domain, and a catalytic serine protease domain. These domains are pivotal for its clotting activity and interactions with other components of the coagulation system.
3. The Functions of Vatreptacog alfa
Vatreptacog alfa's primary function lies in its ability to initiate the coagulation process by binding to tissue factor (TF) exposed at sites of injury. This binding event activates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, ultimately leading to the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin then acts on fibrinogen to produce fibrin, which forms the structural basis of blood clots. The clotting cascade triggered by Vatreptacog alfa is essential in preventing excessive bleeding, as it forms a fibrin meshwork that reinforces platelet aggregation and halts blood loss. This process is particularly critical in individuals with bleeding disorders such as hemophilia, where the natural clotting mechanisms are compromised. Clinical Applications: Vatreptacog alfa has found significant clinical application in the treatment of various bleeding disorders, including hemophilia with inhibitors, acquired hemophilia, and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Additionally, it has been used in surgical settings to manage bleeding complications in patients with coagulation disorders or undergoing major surgeries. The administration of Vatreptacog alfa is typically done under the supervision of healthcare professionals, considering the intricacies of clotting regulation to avoid thrombotic events. Dosage and frequency are determined based on the patient's condition, severity of bleeding, and individual response.
Vatreptacog alfa, as a recombinant factor VIIa, plays a vital role in restoring hemostasis by initiating the clotting cascade. Its structural similarity to endogenous factor VIIa enables its therapeutic applications in bleeding disorders and surgical settings. As ongoing research continues to elucidate its mechanism of action and explore new therapeutic possibilities, Vatreptacog alfa remains a cornerstone in the management of bleeding-related conditions, offering hope to individuals for whom hemostasis is a critical concern. The therapeutic potential of Vatreptacog alfa; rFVIIa extends beyond its current indications. Ongoing research is exploring its use in other bleeding disorders, such as acquired hemophilia and congenital factor VII deficiency. Additionally, efforts are being made to develop extended half-life formulations of Vatreptacog alfa; rFVIIa, which would reduce the frequency of administration and improve patient convenience.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use. No products from Creative BioMart may be resold, modified for resale or used to manufacture commercial products
without prior written approval from Creative BioMart.
For more information on how our products could help advance your project, please contact us.