The product is a chemically synthesized version of thymosin alpha 1 that is identical to human thymosin alpha 1. Thymosin alpha 1 is an acetylated polypeptide.
<0.001 EU per 1 μg of the peptide by the LAL method
Indicated as an adjuvant for influenza vaccine in elderly patients and as an adjuvant for both influenza and hepatitis B vaccines in chronic hemodialysis patients who failed to achieve adequate antibody titers from previous immunization.
Examples of Clinical Use:
Influenza and hepatitis B
The product is a 28-amino acid polypeptide produced synthetically but originally isolated from thymosin fraction 5, a bovine thymus extract containing a number of immunologically active peptides. In vitro studies have shown that the product can influence T-cell production and maturation, stimulate production of Th1 cytokines such as interferon-gamma and interleukin-2, and activate natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
Mechanism of action:
The mechanism of action of thymalfasin is not completely understood but is thought to be related to its immunomodulating activities, centered primarily around augmentation of T-cell function. In various in vitro assays, thymosin alpha 1 has been shown to promote T-cell differentiation and maturation; for example, CD4+, CD8+, and CD3+ cells have all been shown to be increased. Thymosin alpha 1 has also been shown to increase production of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-3, and expression of IL-2 receptor following activation by mitogens or antigens, increase NK cell activity, increase production of migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), and increase antibody response to T-cell dependent antigens. Thymosin alpha 1 has also been shown to antagonize dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of thymocytes in vitro. In vivo administration of thymosin alpha 1 to animals immunosuppressed by chemotherapy, tumor burden, or irradiation showed that thymosin alpha 1 protects against cytotoxic damage to bone marrow, tumor progression and opportunistic infections, thereby increasing survival time and number of survivors. Many of the in vitro and in vivo effects of thymosin alpha 1 have been interpreted as influences on either differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to thymocytes or activation of thymocytes into activated T-cells. Thymalfasin also has been shown in vitro to upregulate expression of toll like receptors (TLR) including TLR2 and TLR9 in mouse and human dendritic cells, as well as activate NF-kB and JNK/P38/AP1 pathways. Thymalfasin's activation of dendritic cells provides another possible pathway explaining thymalfasin's immunomodulatory and antiviral effects.
Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) was first discovered in the early 1970s by Dr. Allan Goldstein and his colleagues at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. The researchers were investigating the effects of a thymus gland extract on immune function when they came across a small peptide that exhibited immunopotentiating properties.
Dr. Goldstein and his team isolated the active component responsible for the immune-enhancing effects and named it thymosin alpha 1. They found that Tα1 was a small peptide consisting of 28 amino acids, and it was produced naturally in the thymus gland. Further studies revealed that Tα1 played a crucial role in modulating the immune system. It was found to stimulate the production and function of various immune cells, such as T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, which are important for immune surveillance and defense against infections and cancers.
Since its discovery, Tα1 has been extensively studied for its potential therapeutic applications. It has shown promise in treating a variety of conditions, including viral infections, cancer, immune disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Tα1 has been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies for its antiviral properties against various viruses, including hepatitis B and C, HIV, and influenza. It has been found to enhance immune responses against these viral infections and potentially reduce viral replication.
2. Features and applications of thymosin alpha 1
Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) possesses several noteworthy features and has been explored for various therapeutic applications. Here are some of its key features and applications:
Immunomodulatory properties: Tα1 is known for its ability to modulate the immune system. It can enhance the function of different immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, which play a vital role in the immune response against infections and cancers.
Anti-viral effects: Tα1 has been extensively studied for its potential antiviral properties. It has demonstrated the ability to enhance immune responses against viral infections, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and influenza. Tα1 might help in reducing viral replication and improving the body's defense against such viral pathogens.
Anti-cancer effects: Tα1 has shown promise in cancer research. It can stimulate anti-tumor immune responses and enhance the effectiveness of other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. It has been studied for various types of cancers, including melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, and gastric cancer.
Immune disorders and autoimmune diseases: Tα1 has been investigated for its immunomodulatory effects in autoimmune and immune-related disorders. It may help regulate immune dysfunctions and improve symptoms and disease outcomes in conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Immunosenescence: Aging is often associated with a decline in immune function, known as immunosenescence. Tα1 has been studied for its potential in reversing or ameliorating age-related immune dysfunctions, thereby contributing to improved immune function in older individuals.
Vaccine adjuvant: Tα1 has also been explored as a vaccine adjuvant. Adjuvants are substances that enhance the immune response to vaccines. Tα1 has shown the capability to improve vaccine-induced immune responses and increase the effectiveness of certain vaccines.
Potential neuroprotective effects: In recent years, Tα1 has been investigated for its potential neuroprotective properties. Studies have suggested that it may help protect nerve cells and improve outcomes in certain neurological conditions and injuries, such as traumatic brain injury and stroke.
3. Clinical impact of thymosin alpha 1
Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) has shown significant clinical impact in several areas. Here are some of the key clinical implications of Tα1:
Infectious diseases: Tα1 has been studied as an adjunctive treatment for chronic viral infections, such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Clinical trials have demonstrated its ability to improve virological response rates and reduce liver damage in patients with these infections. It has also been investigated as a potential therapy for HIV/AIDS, where it may enhance immune responses and decrease viral load.
Cancer treatment: Tα1 has shown promise in cancer research and clinical trials. It has been evaluated as an adjuvant therapy in various cancers, including melanoma, lung cancer, and breast cancer. In combination with standard cancer treatments like chemotherapy or immunotherapy, Tα1 has demonstrated improved overall survival rates and disease outcomes.
Immunodeficiencies: Patients with primary immunodeficiencies and secondary immunodeficiencies, such as those caused by chemotherapy or HIV infection, may benefit from Tα1 therapy. It can help enhance immune responses, increase immune cell populations, and improve overall immune function in these individuals.
Autoimmune diseases: Tα1 has been explored as a potential therapy for various autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. It may help regulate immune dysfunctions and control disease activity in these conditions by modulating the immune system.
Aging-associated immune decline: With advancing age, the immune system often becomes less effective, leading to increased susceptibility to infections and reduced response to vaccines. Tα1 has been investigated for its potential to reverse or ameliorate age-related immune dysfunctions. It may offer a means to enhance immune function and improve overall health in older individuals.
Neurological disorders: Emerging research suggests that Tα1 may have neuroprotective properties and potential therapeutic applications in neurological disorders. It has been studied in conditions like traumatic brain injury, stroke, and Parkinson's disease, where it may help protect nerve cells and promote tissue repair.
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