Rituximab is a genetically engineered chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant B lymphocytes. The antibody is an IgG1 kappa immunoglobulin containing murine light and heavy-chain variable region sequences and human constant region sequences. It was originally approved by the U.S. FDA in 1997 as a single agent to treat patients with B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), however, has now been approved for a variety of conditions. On November 28, 2018, the US FDA approved Truxima, the first biosimilar to Rituxan (Rituximab).
Rituximab binds to the CD20 antigen, which is predominantly expressed on mature B cells and on >90% of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas 1. The antibody leads to selective killing of B-cells. The following are the pharmacodynamic outcomes for various conditions, including non- Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
Mechanism of action:
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen, which is expressed on the surface of pre-B and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, rituximab mediates B-cell lysis (or breakdown). The possible mechanisms of cell lysis include complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).
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