IFN-g, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immune-regulatory functions, it is a potent activator of macrophages, and has anti-proliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the anti-viral and anti-tumor effects of type I interferons. IFN-g mouse recombinant produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 134 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 15.6 kDa. The IFN-gamma is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
>99% by SDS-Page and HPLC analysis
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered concentrated (1 mg/ml) solution in PBS, pH 7.4 and 5% trehalose. Sterile filtered white lyophilized (freeze-dried) powder.
<0.001 EU per 1 μg of the peptide by the LAL method
The specific activity as determined in a viral resistance assay is < 0.1 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 1 x 10＾7 U/mg.
It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized IFN-g in sterile distilled water not less than 100 μg/ml which can then be further diluted to other aqueous solutions.
IFN-g, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immune-regulatory functions, it is a potent activator of macrophages, and has anti-proliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the anti-viral and anti-tumor effects of type I interferons.
Polyferon or interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a critical cytokine that plays a significant role in the immune response against various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. That play a crucial role in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review provides a detailed overview of the structure, signaling pathways, and multifaceted functions of Polyferon IFN-γ in immunity, host defense, and disease. Understanding the intricacies of IFN-γ's structure and functions is essential for unraveling its therapeutic potential.
2. The structural feature
Polyferon IFN-γ is a small protein with a molecular weight of approximately 17 kDa. It is composed of 143 amino acids and is primarily produced by activated T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. The protein consists of six alpha-helices (A-F) and two short antiparallel beta-sheets. It also contains two disulfide bonds formed between specific cysteine residues, which contribute to its stable structure. Polyferon IFN-γ is a homodimeric protein with a molecular weight of approximately 45 kDa. It is composed of two identical subunits, each containing 143 amino acids. The dimeric structure is vital for its biological activity and receptor engagement.
Antiviral Activity: Polyferon IFN-γ plays a vital role in inhibiting viral replication. It stimulates the production of antiviral proteins, such as protein kinase R (PKR) and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), which inhibit viral protein synthesis and enhance viral RNA degradation. Immunomodulatory Effects: Polyferon IFN-γ regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. It enhances the phagocytic activity of macrophages, allowing them to better engulf and eliminate pathogens. It also facilitates the maturation of dendritic cells, which are crucial for presenting antigens to T cells. IFN-γ exhibits potent antiviral activity by inducing the expression of antiviral proteins, inhibiting viral replication, and enhancing the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against infected cells. Additionally, IFN-γ promotes the differentiation of naive T cells into effector T cells, thereby enhancing the cellular immune response. IFN-γ signals through the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. Binding of IFN-γ to its receptor activates JAK1 and JAK2, which subsequently phosphorylate STAT1. Phosphorylated STAT1 forms dimers and translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to gamma-activated sequence (GAS) elements, leading to the transcription of various genes involved in immune responses and inflammation. Anti-Tumor Activity: Polyferon IFN-γ has potent anti-tumor effects. It can directly inhibit the growth of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. IFN-γ also enhances the cytotoxicity of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumor cells, thereby contributing to tumor eradication. Immunoregulation: Polyferon IFN-γ modulates the balance between Th1 and Th2 immune responses. It promotes the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th1 cells, which produce IFN-γ, TNF-α, and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Th1 cells are crucial for cell-mediated immune responses and play a vital role in eliminating intracellular pathogens. IFN-γ also inhibits the production of Th2-associated cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-5, which are involved in allergic and autoimmune diseases. Certain pathogens have evolved strategies to evade IFN-γ-mediated immune responses, highlighting the significance of this cytokine in host-pathogen interactions. Certain pathogens have evolved strategies to evade IFN-γ-mediated immune responses, highlighting the significance of this cytokine in host-pathogen interactions. The immunomodulatory properties of IFN-γ have led to its use as a therapeutic agent in various diseases, including chronic granulomatous disease, severe combined immunodeficiency, and certain malignancies. However, its clinical application is often limited by side effects and complex interactions within the immune system.
In conclusion, Polyferon Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a multifunctional cytokine that exerts diverse immunological activities in the body. Its antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, and immunoregulatory functions make it a crucial mediator of the immune response. Further research on IFN-γ may provide insights into the development of therapeutic strategies for combating various diseases, including infections and cancers. Understanding its structural features and multifaceted functions holds great promise for harnessing its potential as a therapeutic target in various clinical settings. Further research is essential to fully exploit the therapeutic benefits of IFN-γ while minimizing its potential drawbacks.
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