The product is a biosynthetic, rapid-acting human insulin analogue produced in a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of E.coli (K12). This recombinant hormone differs from native human insulin in that the amino acid arginine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine at position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid. These structural modifications decrease hexamer formation, stabilize the product monomers and increase the rate of absorption and onset of action compared to human insulin.
<0.001 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method
For the treatment of Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Should be used in regimens including a long-acting or basal insulin analogue unless it is used in a continuous infusion pump. May be used with oral antidiabetic agents.
Examples of Clinical Use:
Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus
Insulin is a natural hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. In non-diabetic individuals, a basal level of insulin is supplemented with insulin spikes following meals. Postprandial insulin spikes are responsible for the metabolic changes that occur as the body transitions from a postabsorptive to absorptive state. Insulin promotes cellular uptake of glucose, particularly in muscle and adipose tissues, promotes energy storage via glycogenesis, opposes catabolism of energy stores, increases DNA replication and protein synthesis by stimulating amino acid uptake by liver, muscle and adipose tissue, and modifies the activity of numerous enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Insulin also promotes growth and is required for the actions of growth hormone (e.g. protein synthesis, cell division, DNA synthesis). The product is a rapid-acting insulin analogue used to mimic postprandial insulin spikes in diabetic individuals. The onset of action of the product is approximately 15 minutes. Its activity peaks 60 minutes following subcutaneous injection and its duration of action is 2-4 hours.
Mechanism of action:
Insulin glulisine binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor autophosphorylates and phosphorylates numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. Activation of these proteins leads to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC), both of which play critical roles in metabolism and catabolism. In humans, insulin is stored in the form of hexamers; however, only insulin monomers are able to interact with IR. Substitution of the arginine at position B3 for lysine and replacement of the B29 lysine with glutamic acid decreases the propensity to form hexamers, stabilizes the hormone in monomeric form and results in a rapid rate of absorption and short duration of action.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use. No products from Creative BioMart may be resold, modified for resale or used to manufacture commercial products
without prior written approval from Creative BioMart.
For more information on how our products could help advance your project, please contact us.