The product is a truncated form of the human Complement Receptor 1 (CR1) linked to a unique construct that regulates the over-production of complement at the cell surface. It consists of the first three short consensus domains of human complement receptor 1 (CR1), manufactured in recombinant bacteria and modified with a membrane-targeting amphiphilic peptide based on the naturally occurring membrane-bound myristoyl-electrostatic switch peptide.
<0.001 EU per 1 μg of the peptide by the LAL method
Investigated for use/treatment in transplant (rejection), kidney disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Examples of Clinical Use:
Transplant (rejection), kidney disease, and rheumatoid arthritis
Mechanism of action:
Mirococept comprises the C3/C5 convertase-inhibiting region of CR1. This complement inhibitory domains of CR1 (in APT070) contain C3b-binding sites that lead to dissociation and inactivation of C3b from the classical and alternative pathway convertases. Mirococept effectively blocks and reduces the generation of the activated form of C3, and thwarts the release of both C3a and C5a.
The Human Complement Receptor 1 (CR1) protein, also known as C3b/C4b receptor or CD35, plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system. It acts as a multi-functional receptor involved in various cellular processes, including immune complex clearance, complement regulation, and immune responses.
Background of CR1
CR1 was first discovered in the 1970s as a receptor for the complement components C3b and C4b. It is encoded by the CR1 gene located on chromosome 1q32. CR1 protein is predominantly expressed on various immune cells, such as erythrocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and B cells.
Protein Structure of CR1
The CR1 protein consists of different functional domains, including long homologous repeats known as Short Consensus Repeats (SCRs). These SCR domains are responsible for ligand binding, complement regulatory activities, and interactions with other immune-related molecules. CR1 also possesses a cytoplasmic tail that can interact with specific signaling molecules, modulating cellular responses.
Function of CR1
The primary function of CR1 is to enhance the clearance of immune complexes by erythrocytes and phagocytic cells. It acts as a cofactor for the Factor I-mediated cleavage of complement components C3b and C4b, accelerating their degradation and preventing the formation of the membrane attack complex. Additionally, CR1 can directly bind to pathogens, promoting their clearance by immune cells.
CR1-Related Signaling Pathways
CR1 engagement triggers several intracellular signaling pathways. One of the significant pathways is the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is activated upon CR1 ligation and regulates cellular processes such as cell survival, proliferation, and immune responses. The PI3K pathway mediated by CR1 plays a crucial role in modulating immune cell responses.
Role of CR1 in Diseases
Dysregulation or genetic variations in CR1 can lead to impaired immune complex clearance, altered complement regulation, and increased susceptibility to various diseases. CR1 has been implicated in several medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In these diseases, CR1 abnormalities contribute to the accumulation of immune complexes and complement dysregulation.
Application in Medicine
The unique functions of CR1 make it a potential target for therapeutic interventions. For example, CR1 agonists can be developed to enhance immune complex clearance in diseases where immune complex accumulation is a major concern. On the other hand, CR1 antagonists can be designed to inhibit excessive complement activation and dampen immune responses in autoimmune conditions.
Drug Candidates Targeting CR1
Several drug candidates targeting CR1 are being explored in preclinical and clinical studies. These include monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, and peptides that modulate CR1 activity or interact with CR1 ligands. These potential therapeutics aim to restore complement regulation, reduce immune complex deposition, and provide targeted interventions for CR1-associated diseases.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use. No products from Creative BioMart may be resold, modified for resale or used to manufacture commercial products
without prior written approval from Creative BioMart.
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