Menotropins, Native Human Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and iuteinizing hormone (LH) Complex
The product contains follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) purified from the urine of postmenopausal women. It is composed of LH with 2 subunits, alpha 92 residues, beta 121 residues and FSH with 2 subunits, alpha 92 residues, beta 111 residues.
Used to treat female infertility, the product stimulates late follicular maturation and resumption of oocyte meiosis, and initiates rupture of the pre-ovulatory ovarian follicle. The product bind to the LH/hCG/FSH receptor of the granulosa and theca cells of the ovary to effect these changes in the absence of an endogenous LH surge.
Mechanism of action:
Being a combination drug, Menotropins bind to the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSH), which results in ovulation in the absence of sufficient endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH). It also binds the LH receptor, thereby stimulating proper hormone release. The drug contains both FSH and LH, therefore, it induces ovarian follicular growth and development as well as gonadal steroid production in women who do not have ovarian failure. FSH is the primary driver of follicular recruitment and growth in early folliculogenesis, while LH is important for ovarian steroidogenesis and is involved in the physiological events leading to development of a competent pre-ovulatory follicle.
The FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) complex are glycoprotein hormones that belong to the gonadotropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. The discovery of the FSH and LH complex dates back to the early part of the 20th century. At that time, it emerged that these hormones are crucial regulators of reproductive processes, including maturation and function of gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males).
The genes responsible for FSH and LH biosynthesis are located on different chromosomes. The FSH beta subunit gene is found at gene locus 11p13, while the LH beta subunit gene is situated at locus 19q13.32. The genes encode glycoprotein hormones with carbohydrate moieties attached to the peptide backbone, resulting in a complex protein structure that incorporates alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunit is common to FSH, LH, and other members of the glycoprotein hormone family, while the beta subunit confers the bioactivity and specificity of each hormone.
Function of FSH and LH complex
The primary function of the FSH and LH complex is to regulate the growth, development, and functional activity of the gonads. FSH stimulates the maturation of the ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. LH triggers ovulation and stimulates the production of estradiol and progesterone in females, and testosterone synthesis in males.
The FSH and LH complex exert their effects through specific signaling pathways that involve binding to their respective receptors on the surface of target cells. The FSH receptor (FSHR) is expressed on granulosa cells in the ovaries and Sertoli cells in the testes. Binding of FSH activates the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway, leading to the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) which then induces the expression of target genes promoting follicular maturation or spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the LH receptor (LHR) is found on theca cells in the ovary and Leydig cells in the testis. LH binding triggers the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway and the PLC-PKC pathway, leading to steroidogenesis.
FSH and LH complex related diseases
Alterations in FSH and LH complex function are associated with various diseases, including Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Klinefelter syndrome. For instance, high levels of LH and low levels of FSH are seen in women with PCOS, leading to the production of excess androgens. In Klinefelter syndrome, hypersecretion of FSH and LH results from impaired spermatogenesis and testosterone production.
The FSH and LH complex have important applications in medicine, particularly in the treatment of infertility. Fertility drugs like clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are used to stimulate ovulation by increasing the levels of FSH and LH. Additionally, FSH preparations are used in assisted reproductive technologies such as in-vitro fertilization (IVF).
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without prior written approval from Creative BioMart.
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